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Published on: June 19 2023 by pipiads

- The video showcases how ADS's load pull simulation capabilities can help optimize performance of power amplifier devices.

- Both new and experienced ADS users can benefit from watching the video.

Bullet Points:

- Load pull simulations should be done in a sequence of steps.

- The first step involves holding available source power constant while varying the load reflection coefficient.

- The subsequent step involves adjusting available source power until the desired power is delivered to each load reflection coefficient.

- To simulate a device, a sample schematic is copied into the ADS project and modified accordingly.

- Data displays show contours of constant power delivered and added efficiency, as well as gain and gain compression characteristics.

- Additional simulation schematics are available for optimizing power added efficiency and gain, and for analyzing two-tone and modulated signals.

- ADS's load pull simulation capabilities can help designers obtain optimal performance from power amplifier devices.

- The new simulation setups and improved data displays in ADS 2009 Update 1 make load pull simulations even easier and more efficient.

- For more information on the current release of ADS, visit the website or download the updated load pull DesignGuide from the knowledge center.

How ads follow you around the internet

- Cookies enable websites to remember our preferences and information, making our online experience more convenient.

- However, cookies also allow companies to track and gather our personal data, leading to privacy concerns.

- This article discusses the history and evolution of cookies, their role in the online advertising industry, and the challenges of protecting our privacy.

History of Cookies:

- Invented by Lou Montulli in 1994 to solve the problem of memory on the web.

- Cookies are unique IDs that enable websites to remember our information and preferences.

- First-party cookies are only accessible by the website we're on, but third-party cookies enable tracking across multiple sites.

Online Advertising Industry:

- Online advertising relies on cookies to track user behavior and target personalized ads.

- Brands, platforms, and middlemen collaborate to deliver ads to the right people.

- Companies like Facebook and Google have a huge amount of information and can target ads to specific individuals.

Privacy Concerns:

- Third-party cookies enable tracking across multiple sites, giving companies a comprehensive map of our online behavior.

- Some browsers have started blocking third-party cookies, but companies are finding loopholes to continue tracking.

- The advertising-only business model incentivizes companies to share our information with each other, leading to privacy concerns.

- The evolution of cookies and online advertising has led to both convenience and privacy concerns.

- Legislative changes may be necessary to protect our privacy, as the technological tit for tat war between companies will never end.

ADS - Using Load Pull Simulation to Design an Amplifier

In this example, we will be using ADS load pull simulation to find the input and output load parameters for a power amplifier and then design the power amplifier.


1. Open ADS and create a schematic for a generic power amplifier.

2. Under Design Guide Amplifier, select Power Amplifier Examples by Class and Operation, and choose a Class B load pull example.

3. Replace the default model transistor with a desired model transistor.

4. Change the bias voltage to the desired value and leave everything else the same.

5. Run the simulation and view the results, which show the power and PAE contours.

6. Determine the load impedance closest to the maximum power using a marker.

7. Design matching networks using a Smith chart tool.

8. Add the matching networks to the schematic along with a current monitoring component and coupling capacitors.

9. Add input and output ports for RF and DC components and a port for the current probe.

10. Create a symbol for the power amplifier component.

By following these steps, we can successfully design a power amplifier using ADS load pull simulation and matching networks. This process can be applied to various types of power amplifiers and can help improve their performance.

ADS: EVM and ACPR from Measured Load Pull Data

In this video, Andy Howard, an applications engineer with Keysight EDA, demonstrates how to plot one tone swept power measured load pull data and use it with a modulated signal to calculate error vector magnitude, adjacent channel power ratio, and other data. The technique assumes that there is both amplitude and phase distortion in the measured load pull data file.

Steps to using this technique include:

1. Reading in the measured swept power load pull data into ADS and displaying it.

2. Generating or reading in a modulated signal and determining its peak to average power ratio.

3. Specifying several different parameters on the data display to carry out the calculations and display the results.

Contours of constant EVM, ACPR, efficiency, output power, and bias current can be plotted. The example includes plots of data versus power and interpolation of the data at a constant output power, a constant gain compression, and a constant error vector magnitude. This shows contours of output power and efficiency at a specified EVM level. It indicates, for a particular modulated signal, the optimal reflection coefficient to maximize power or areas of the Smith chart where the output power is above some level while satisfying an EVM requirement.

The technique involves pulling the load and sweeping the one-tone source power to obtain different output power and phase distortion curves. These curves create a trajectory diagram of a modulated signal. As we move along the trajectory, the magnitude of the signal changes. If we apply this signal to the magnitude and phase non-linearity of the measured device, we get amplitude and phase distortion.

The algorithm used to compute the EVM is discussed in various papers from Keysight measurement scientists. The ACPR is also computed from the distorted output spectrum. We scale up the amplitude of the input modulated signal so we get EVM and ACPR data as a function of average modulated input or output power. However, we have to avoid setting the modulated input signal's power so high that it exceeds the input power range of the measured load pulled data, which would lead to extrapolation.

Overall, this technique is a useful tool for engineers to optimize the performance of their devices and ensure they are meeting the necessary EVM and ACPR requirements.

1914 | Sainsbury's Ad | Christmas 2014

The above text appears to be a mix of various phrases and sentences, some of which seem unrelated. However, upon closer inspection, it appears that some of the phrases may have been taken from songs, while others may be unrelated utterances.

Possible bullet points:

- Jenkins Oakley Knight: This could be a person's name or a combination of different surnames. It is unclear what this refers to.

- Holy night: This is a phrase that appears in the lyrics of the Christmas carol Silent Night.

- All is calm, all is bright: Another phrase from Silent Night.

- Holy infant so tender: Another line from Silent Night that refers to the baby Jesus.

- Sleep in heavenly peace: A line from the chorus of Silent Night.

- Sleep in heavenly: The word peace is missing from this phrase, which suggests that it may have been taken out of context.

- Jim Jim: This may be a name or a repetition for emphasis.

- No don't do it: This could be a plea to stop someone from doing something.

- Halt: A command to stop.

- My name is Jim: An introduction.

- My name is Otto: Another introduction.

- Pleased to meet you: A polite greeting.

- Otto Rose she's called: This sentence is grammatically incorrect and lacks context.

- Danke: The German word for thank you.

- Happy Christmas: A common holiday greeting.

It is difficult to discern the overall meaning or purpose of the text without further context. However, it appears to be a jumble of phrases that may have been taken from different sources. Some of the phrases relate to Christmas and may be lyrics from songs, while others are unrelated statements.

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- In this video, the speaker shares about a mobile application called Vuewin that allows users to earn free load or real money by viewing ads.

Features of Vuewin:

- Users can redeem free load or cash, with proof of payment on their Facebook page.

- The ads are images, not videos, so it does not consume too much data.

- Users can earn free tickets by viewing ads and use them to bet on winning numbers based on the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) lotto draw.

- There are two types of rewards: regular chips for free load, Garena shells, or Vuewin T-shirt, and premium chips based on the lotto draw for cars or cash up to 100,000 pesos.

How to Play Vuewin:

- Users can choose from three games: Hi Lo, My Tickets, and lotto games with two, four, or six digits.

- The numbers should be in the right order for premium chips and there is a two-day time limit for redemption.

- Users can bet up to 10 tickets per day and can earn more tickets by viewing ads.

- Consolation prizes are given for matching digits, even if not in the right order.

- Users can redeem prizes via email and must use their own details to avoid problems.

- Vuewin is a legitimate mobile application that allows users to earn extra income by viewing ads and playing games.

- Users can redeem free load or cash, as well as other rewards, by earning and using tickets.

- The application has rules and terms and conditions that users should read to avoid problems.

- For more videos on earning extra income online, users can subscribe to the speaker's channel and click the notification bell to get notified of new uploads.

ADS: Simulating Load Pull to Optimize Matching Networks for Doherty Power Amplifiers

In this brief video, Andy Howard, an applications engineer with Keysight EESOF EDA, demonstrates an ADS workspace that runs load pull simulations on a transistor and then uses the simulated data to optimize an impedance matching network for a Doherty power amplifier design.

Bullet points:

- Doherty power amplifiers are widely used in applications where high efficiency is needed over a range of output powers.

- The main amplifier is meant to operate at high efficiency for lower input power levels.

- The peaking amplifier turns on only when the input signal is near its peak amplitude, which enables DPAs to deliver higher power than the main amplifier could by itself.

- The matching network is specifically for the main amplifier transistor, but the same network could be used for the peaking amplifier.

- Load pull simulations of the main amplifier's transistor were run at three different frequencies to examine the data, then target load impedances were chosen for the matching network to generate when the peaking amplifier is off and when it is on.

- The simulated load pull contours were reused to optimize two different matching networks.


The performance data after running the optimization shows that the load seen at the output of the matching network changes depending on whether the peaking amplifier is on or off. Therefore, the optimization has to be run under two different load conditions. The Smith charts show contours from the load pull simulations, each at a different frequency. The red contours are of output power at 3 dB gain compression, the purple X's show target impedances to be generated by the output matching network when the peaking amplifier is on (these are the high power impedances, sometimes referred to as Zopt). The pink dots are the impedances generated by the matching network after optimization and are close to the target values. The blue contours are of efficiency, and the green contours are of gain when the main amplifier device is delivering a lower but constant output power (40 dBm in this case). The light blue X's show the target impedances, sometimes referred to as Zmod, for this case when the peaking amplifier is off. The optimized matching network also generates impedances close to these target values.

The load pull simulations have been run at three different source frequencies. Although more or fewer frequencies could be simulated, this shows one of the data displays. The lower left Smith chart shows contours of efficiency, power delivered, and gain all at a specified XdB gain compression point. The red X is the maximum efficiency load, and the blue X is the maximum power load. These could be used as target impedances for designing the impedance matching network. Optimization with transmission lines is also possible.

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